The Guardian’s Office received a record 96 in-mandate requests for advocacy in the first quarter of the new year, representing 127 children and young people.
This was an increase of 35 per cent in inquiries and a 24 percent increase in the number of children represented compared to the preceding quarter.
Last year the Office averaged 64 in-mandate requests per quarter. This follows the trend of an increase in the number of requests for advocacy and in the complexity of the issues raised.
The top five people who initiated in-mandate requests in July-September 2018 were:
Adults in the child’s life 42
Children and young people themselves 33
Department for Child Protection staff 10
Health, education and youth justice 5
Non-government organisations 3
The top five presenting issues (by inquiry) were:
Stability and security of placement 29
Participation in decision making 18
Contact with significant others 15
Appropriate care 24
These are also the top five issues identified in the Guardian’s 2017-18 Annual Report and substantially the same as those reported in previous years.
The 33 children and young people who requested advocacy directly were in the following care arrangements:
Residential care 16
Adelaide Youth Training Centre 5
Relative care 4
Foster care 2
Commercial (emergency) care 2
 The Guardian is mandated by legislation to promote the interests of children and young people below the age of 18 years who are living in out-of-home care. Another 17 inquiries were determined to be not within the Guardian’s mandate and those callers were assisted to make contact with a more appropriate organisation.
 Young people often present with multiple, interrelated issues. Presenting issues are counted as primary and secondary and these are added to achieve the numbers reported.
The Adelaide Youth Training Centre is housed on two campuses in Cavan, north of the Grand Junction Road. One campus caters for female residents, younger male residents and young people in overnight remand and the other houses older male residents.
In 2017-18 there were 671 total admissions accounting for 329 individual young people of whom half or more were in remand awaiting trial.
On an average day in 2017-18 there were 44.31 young people residing in the Centre. Of these:
- 9.3 % were young women
- 24.3% were under guardianship orders at the time they were admitted
- 62.3% were of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent
This compares with highest daily occupancy (since the Magill and Cavan Centres were amalgamated) of 61.06 in 2012-13 and last year’s average daily occupancy of 49.07.
The age distribution of the young people at the time of admission was:
Two weeks ago we asked our colleagues and friends to spend a hypothetical $100 to improve child protection in South Australia. These were their top five choices:
#1 More early intervention and family support (29.6%)
The range of comment showed that this meant different things to different people. Varying interpretations included using education and public campaigns to reduce unwanted pregnancies, decreasing the social isolation of parents, removing children from ‘failed’ mothers or families at birth and building the capacity of struggling families to become suitable parents. Several respondents noted that supporting Aboriginal families entailed culturally suitable practice, engaging Aboriginal communities and the use of Aboriginal staff.
#2 More therapeutic placements for children in care (10.1%)
Trauma-informed care, therapeutic placements and related matters occurred very often in the comments. Training in understanding a responding to trauma was proposed for foster and kinship carers, residential care workers, social workers and even management and policy makers.
#3 More effort to recruit foster carers and kinship carers (8.5%)
Good family-based care was noted as the best out-of-home care placement option by many respondents. Poor remuneration, lack of support and bad treatment at the hands of DCP and NGO staff were cited as reasons why families did not take up fostering or did not return to it. More rigorous selection, training and review for foster carers could improve the quality of foster care and make it a more attractive option for more people.
#4 More psychological services for children in care (8.3%)
Comments included many calls for much greater access to psychological services for children entering and during their time in care. This was seen by some as a natural complement to therapeutic care.
#5 More child protection report investigators (8.2%)
Comment on this was limited and concerned mostly the conduct of investigations and the interface with the court system. A report on the lack of response to child protection reports by the former Families SA was current at the time of the survey, which may have influenced responses.
Each year, hundreds of young South Australians from 10 to 18 years of age pass through the gates into the Adelaide Youth Training Centre. Each one has a story. Combined together as statistics, their stories tell us who they are, why they are there and how well our youth detention regime is working
If you have two minutes, and an interest in young people in detention, take this quick educational quiz and learn seven critical facts about them.
South Australia’s Aboriginal1 children and young people are vastly over-represented in in state care and in detention centres, according to the Productivity Commission’s Report on Government Services 2018 (ROGS 2018) and the trends are not positive.
The ROGS 2018 data on child protection showed that at 30 June 2017, Aboriginal children and young people comprised 33 per cent of all of those on care and protection orders and were 7.3 times as likely to be in out-of-home care as non-Aboriginal young people. In 2010-11 Aboriginal children and young people were 6.1 times as likely to be in care.
The proportion of Aboriginal young people placed according to the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle (i.e. with kin, within their community or with Aboriginal families), has been declining in recent years from 76.4 per cent in 2009 to 62.5 per cent in 2017, below the national average of 67.6 per cent. (See the chart at the head of this story.)
Though comprising 33 per cent of children and young people in care, Aboriginal children and young people comprised 38 percent of the population in residential care.
The ROGS 2018 data on youth justice services showed that in 2015-16, 58 per cent of the population of 10-17 year olds in youth detention were Aboriginal and that proportion has been growing in recent years. South Australia had significantly higher rates of detention of Aboriginal children and young people than the Australian average.
We present more data and charts about this subject from ROGS 2017 in the Guardian’s Snapshot of South Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and Young People in Care and/or Youth Detention from the Report on Government Services 2016-17.
Download the Snapshot of South Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and Young People in Care and/or Youth Detention from the Report on Government Services 2016-17 now.
1 Aboriginal community preference in South Australia is that the term Aboriginal is inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, a usage we generally adopt in our reports
30 October 2017
The number of children and young people in the care and guardianship of the Minister in South Australia at 30 June 2017 was 3,296. up from 1,791 at 30 June 2007.
Most were in the 10-14 years age range and the distribution is shown in this graph.
Rates of growth of those coming into care
The rate of growth in the numbers of children and young people in care each year is very variable, reflecting changes in the policy and practice of the child protection system and well as changes in society and the economy.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people
The proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people was 34.3 per cent at 30 June 2017, the highest number yet in a steady upward trend. This may reflect a number of factors including a greater willingness of Indigenous young people to identify as such, changes in child protection practice and increasing difficulties being faced by Indigenous families.
Numbers of young people in residential care
The proportion of children and young people accommodated in residential care is on the rise, reaching 11 per cent at 30 June 2017.2 Residential care is not the model favoured by most young people or recommended by authorities. It has expanded because of the inability to source foster and kinship care placements to meet the growth in numbers entering care.
There were 107 residential care houses at 30 June 2017.3 Most houses are of a small scale accommodating three young people but five of the properties were large scale units, designed to accommodate between eight and twelve children and young people.
For information on the numbers of children and young people in emergency care, please see our recent post Addressing the emergency in emergency care.
1 Children and young people in the care and custody of the Minister, for whom the Guardian has a specific mandate, are a similar but not identical cohort to children in out-of-home care.
2 This does not include children and young people in emergency accommodation or the small number in houses with less than three residents.
3 These numbers provided by the DCP Licensing Unit do not include a small number of additional placements with less than three residents, including which brings the total to 132 for 30 June 2017.
3 October, 2017
The Adelaide Youth Training Centre (AYTC) is housed on two campuses in Cavan, north of the Grand Junction road. One campus caters for female residents, younger male residents and young people in overnight remand and the other houses older male residents.
In 2016-17 there were 887 total admissions accounting for 388 individual young people1 of whom half or more were in remand awaiting trial.
Of the 388 young people admitted, at the time of first admission:
- 23.2 % were young women
- 21.9% were under guardianship orders
- 48.5% were of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent2
The age distribution of the young people at the time of admission was:
On an average day in 2016-17 there were 49.07 young people housed in the Centre. This compares with highest daily occupancy since the Magill and Cavan Centres were amalgamated of 61.06 in 2012-13 and the lowest of 47.89 in 2014-15.
1 Some young people are remanded on several occasions or serve several custodial sentences in one 12 month period.
2 The proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait young people in the average daily population in of the AYTC in 2016-17 was 62.42% suggesting that their average stay was longer than non-Indigenous residents.
19 September 2017
The Guardian’s Office has been auditing the Annual Reviews of children in care for 10 years now. We do this to advocate for the children, to see how well the Reviews work and to identify broader systemic issues.
Annual reviews are an important means of monitoring the quality of services provided and the outcomes being achieved for children in care. They are intended to be more than an administrative process. A good annual review focuses on the quality of the child’s care arrangements as a whole
Although required in legislation, only 63 percent were conducted in 2015-16. The number of Annual Reviews for 2016-17 will be available shortly. Based on 10 years of observations and data we can say:
- Where Annual Reviews are conducted, the quality is very variable. Deficits in the representation of children’s views, the preparation by social workers and the presence of non-Departmental staff lead to inadequate consideration of the child’s circumstances and planning for their needs.
- Up to 80 percent of children were assessed to be in a long-term, stable and appropriate placement.
- Numbers of children are not allocated a social worker and, where a worker is allocated, other circumstances prevent the provision of a quality service to children.
- The cultural needs of many Aboriginal children are not being adequately supported.
- Significant numbers of children remain in unsuitable placements.
- Contact between siblings separated in placement is not always facilitated.
- Life Story Books are implemented for about half of the children.
- The proportion of children with IEPs has not progressed beyond 80 percent and may be declining.
- Of the children who are able to comprehend it, many do not receive information about their rights and the proportion who do appears to be declining.
For the background to this summary, you can download the report Audits of Annual Reviews 2007- 2017- children, systems and practice.
The Guardian’s Office received 292 requests for intervention in the 12 months to 30 June, 2017. Of those, the Office found that 57 were out of the Guardian’s mandate. The remaining 235 in-mandate enquiries represented 321 individual children. Of the 235 inquiries:
- 137 were requests for advocacy
- 43 were consultations about action that could be taken regarding children’s circumstances
- 35 were complaints that were re-directed
- 20 were categorised as ‘other’ and included for information only
Some children presenting for advocacy had more than one issue. The main issues were broadly consistent with those of previous years. They were:
|Stable and secure placement|
|Contact with significant others|
|Participation in decision making|
|Access to health and disability services|
|Understanding their circumstances|
|Relationship with their case worker|
The major trends are:
- In-mandate enquiries increased from 145 in 2015-16 to 235 in 2016-17. This increase (62%) is significantly higher than the increase in numbers of children and young people in state care and detention over the same period.
- Young people self-referred in the same proportion as the two previous years but the number increased from 41 in 2015-16 to 71 in 2016-17.
- Enquiries about children and young people in the non home-based care arrangements, (residential care, emergency care and the Adelaide Youth Training Centre) accounted for 53% of the total enquiries. this was greatly out of proportion to their number in the population in state care and detention.
 The Guardian’s mandate is limited to young people in state care and in youth justice detention in South Australia. Out-of-mandate enquirers were referred, where possible, to appropriate sources of assistance.
2 Some enquiries involve numbers of children.