We would like to share with you some of our favorite artworks from young Aboriginal people in residential care that have come to our notice in the past year. Please click on the thumbnails to see a bigger version.
South Australia’s Aboriginal1 children and young people are vastly over-represented in in state care and in detention centres, according to the Productivity Commission’s Report on Government Services 2018 (ROGS 2018) and the trends are not positive.
The ROGS 2018 data on child protection showed that at 30 June 2017, Aboriginal children and young people comprised 33 per cent of all of those on care and protection orders and were 7.3 times as likely to be in out-of-home care as non-Aboriginal young people. In 2010-11 Aboriginal children and young people were 6.1 times as likely to be in care.
The proportion of Aboriginal young people placed according to the Aboriginal Child Placement Principle (i.e. with kin, within their community or with Aboriginal families), has been declining in recent years from 76.4 per cent in 2009 to 62.5 per cent in 2017, below the national average of 67.6 per cent. (See the chart at the head of this story.)
Though comprising 33 per cent of children and young people in care, Aboriginal children and young people comprised 38 percent of the population in residential care.
The ROGS 2018 data on youth justice services showed that in 2015-16, 58 per cent of the population of 10-17 year olds in youth detention were Aboriginal and that proportion has been growing in recent years. South Australia had significantly higher rates of detention of Aboriginal children and young people than the Australian average.
We present more data and charts about this subject from ROGS 2017 in the Guardian’s Snapshot of South Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and Young People in Care and/or Youth Detention from the Report on Government Services 2016-17.
Download the Snapshot of South Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and Young People in Care and/or Youth Detention from the Report on Government Services 2016-17 now.
1 Aboriginal community preference in South Australia is that the term Aboriginal is inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, a usage we generally adopt in our reports
30 October 2017
The number of children and young people in the care and guardianship of the Minister in South Australia at 30 June 2017 was 3,296. up from 1,791 at 30 June 2007.
Most were in the 10-14 years age range and the distribution is shown in this graph.
Rates of growth of those coming into care
The rate of growth in the numbers of children and young people in care each year is very variable, reflecting changes in the policy and practice of the child protection system and well as changes in society and the economy.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people
The proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people was 34.3 per cent at 30 June 2017, the highest number yet in a steady upward trend. This may reflect a number of factors including a greater willingness of Indigenous young people to identify as such, changes in child protection practice and increasing difficulties being faced by Indigenous families.
Numbers of young people in residential care
The proportion of children and young people accommodated in residential care is on the rise, reaching 11 per cent at 30 June 2017.2 Residential care is not the model favoured by most young people or recommended by authorities. It has expanded because of the inability to source foster and kinship care placements to meet the growth in numbers entering care.
There were 107 residential care houses at 30 June 2017.3 Most houses are of a small scale accommodating three young people but five of the properties were large scale units, designed to accommodate between eight and twelve children and young people.
For information on the numbers of children and young people in emergency care, please see our recent post Addressing the emergency in emergency care.
1 Children and young people in the care and custody of the Minister, for whom the Guardian has a specific mandate, are a similar but not identical cohort to children in out-of-home care.
2 This does not include children and young people in emergency accommodation or the small number in houses with less than three residents.
3 These numbers provided by the DCP Licensing Unit do not include a small number of additional placements with less than three residents, including which brings the total to 132 for 30 June 2017.
Aboriginal children are disproportionately represented in the care system. They comprise about one third of children in care, and the trend points to further increases. As well as the trauma and dislocation felt by all children coming into care, they face the extra risk of removal from, or loss of access to, their culture, language and community.
Commissioner Nyland’s October 2016 report recommended widespread changes to how child protection services related to Aboriginal children and communities and the Government’s response in December 2016 accepted most of those recommendations.
The Government undertook to:
- Develop an Aboriginal recruitment and retention strategy in the Department for Child Protection (DCP) as part of the workforce strategy (R 30) to increase the numbers of and support for Aboriginal staff (R 187 and 188) and non-Aboriginal staff working with Aboriginal children (R 222).
- Place Aboriginal staff in the Child Abuse Report Line call centre to assist with the assessment of Aboriginal families at the point of notification (R 34).
- Make reducing the over-representation of Aboriginal children in the child protection system a priority in the work of the planned Early Intervention Research Directorate (R 50).
- Incorporate the particular needs of Aboriginal children in kinship care when developing the new leaving care model (R 163).
- Review the selection, training and supervision of kinship carers and placements. (Aboriginal children are highly represented in kinship care and we discussed this reform in detail in our post on home based care from January this year).
- Ensure that a recognised Aboriginal agency is consulted on all placement decisions involving Aboriginal children (R 189).
- Set up a a dedicated scoping unit within the DCP to research family connections and prepare genograms (R 190).
- Provide all practitioners with training, support and clinical supervision to give them the knowledge, skills and techniques to work effectively with Aboriginal children and families (R191).
- Identify evidence-based service models for early intervention that meet the needs of Aboriginal children and families (R 192).
- Commission not-for-profit agencies to develop service models that can respond to higher-risk Aboriginal families with multiple, complex needs (R 194).
- Develop assessment tools to be used in the new child and family assessment and referral networks that specifically consider the needs of Aboriginal children and families and consult with the local Aboriginal community and service providers (R 196).
- Ensure that at least one Principal Aboriginal Consultant in the DCP has experience and expertise in remote Aboriginal communities (R 202).
- Implement the Education Dashboard to provide access to information about schools and school students that can be viewed and accessed by staff both in DECD and the DCP (R 210).
- Identify evidence-based service models for early intervention that meet the needs of Aboriginal children and families and develop a best practice evaluation framework for existing early intervention and prevention programs R212).
- Create an early intervention service for families in remote communities who could benefit from support to prevent escalation of issues (R 212).
- Upgrade facilities at Mimili and Yalata to provide for playgroups, preschools and other services that visit those communities (R 213).
- Develop and deliver training programs and tools for staff and carers to promote culturally informed practice (R 235).
- Identify performance indicators on the cultural competency of the agency’s workforce, and regularly review the effect of these recommendations on that competency (R 237).
There is more information about the numbers of Aboriginal children in care in last week’s post Statistics on Aboriginal children and young people in care and juvenile detention 2015-16 .
Watch out for the next posts in this series which set out the Government’s response to the Nyland report in the areas of education and collaboration.
South Australia’s Aboriginal children and young people are vastly overrepresented in in state care and in detention centres, according to the Productivity Commission’s Report on Government Services 2017 (ROGS 2017).
In 2015-16, Aboriginal children and young people comprised 33 per cent of all of those on care and protection orders and were 7.3 times as likely to be in out-of-home care as non-Aboriginal young people, allowing for their numbers in the population.
At June 2016, Aboriginal children and young people comprised 47.9 per cent of 10-17 year-olds in youth justice detention in South Australia while they made up only 4.5 per cent of that age group in the total population.
We present more data and charts about this subject from ROGS 2017 in the Guardian’s Snapshot of South Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children and Young People in Care and/or Youth Detention from the Report on Government Services 2017.
Download the snapshot now.
1 In this report we use the term ‘Aboriginal’ to include people who identify both as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.
… some Aboriginal children need to reside with non-Aboriginal carers. Supporting the cultural needs of these children is not tokenistic, but profoundly important…
20 February, 2017When Advocates from the Guardian’s Office start monitoring residential care facilities for children and young people in state care in 2017, it will be armed with a new focus on Aboriginal culture and connection and a new set of tools to complement it. (See the previous item on the Guardian’s website New indicators focus on Aboriginal culture and connection.)
‘Our visit to each residential care house is necessarily quite short’, said Advocate Jodie Evans, ‘and so we try to spend as much time talking and hanging out with the residents as possible.’
‘We take time to review the records of the house before we visit. This gives us some valuable data and insights into how things are going at the house before we arrive.
‘Sometimes you can talk with young people about their Aboriginal culture and connections quite freely but for many it can be a sensitive and private subject and not something readily shared with a relative stranger.
‘The really important thing is not that they have those conversations with us but that they are having those conversations with someone and that their needs and wishes are being acted on.
‘How well this is being done can be hard to judge in the relatively short time we have in the young people’s space but there are a few good indicators.
‘Sometimes as an Advocate you can just look around – is there Aboriginal artwork on the walls, pictures of Aboriginal performers and athletes and music and TV shows featuring Aboriginal talent. This can be one indication of honouring and nurturing a resident’s Aboriginal identity.
‘Another indicator is the keeping of an Aboriginal Life Story Book and a memory box. If it’s done well and with the full involvement of the young person, it can show that that the house is making an effort to nurture their Aboriginal culture.
‘Likewise, Advocates will look for evidence of participation, not only in activities linked to popular Aboriginal events such as NAIDOC Week, but also of efforts to link the Aboriginal resident to communities that share personal connections, language and cultural ties.
‘For some young people, a visit to country, their community and their culture is invaluable in developing their Aboriginal identity. We know that to do it well requires a great investment of effort and cooperation but to have done so is powerful evidence to an Advocate of serious commitment to meeting residents’ cultural needs.
‘We know that residential care staff cannot do this work alone. Without receiving the information held by others and the practical support from others, their best efforts will be seriously limited. Our Advocates will be looking for evidence of an active involvement of other professionals such as case workers, Principal Aboriginal Consultants and teachers.
‘We will also be looking out for the use of the new Aboriginal Cultural Identity Support Tool. The in-depth information captured by the tool, if it is passed on sensitively, can be invaluable in helping residential care houses to best direct their efforts in rebuilding and strengthening connections to culture for their Aboriginal residents.
‘We are looking forward to getting out and among the young people and staff in residential care this year and especially to finding and sharing examples of good cultural support.
‘Around the middle of the year, we will also be taking a good look at how effective our monitoring has been in supporting real improvement in the provision of cultural support to young Aboriginal residents,’ she said.
1 The life they deserve: Child Protection Systems Royal Commission Report, Volume 1: Summary and Report(Government of South Australia, 2016) available at http://www.agd.sa.gov.au/child-protection-systems-royal-commission
2 For this article, where we use the term Aboriginal we shall take it to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
This article also appears in the February 2017 edition of the Guardian’s Newsletter.
I need you to understand where I have come from and how I am dealing with this situation so that you can understand me when I have a say.
Young person in care
31 January, 2017
The draft Children and Young People (Safety) Bill 2016 has been released by the State Government for comment. It updates the Children’s Protection Act 1993 and adds some elements from the Family and Community Services Act 1972. It also enables some initiatives from the Nyland Royal Commission recommendations. Once passed it will replace the Children’s Protection Act 1993 as the key piece of legislation governing child protection in this state.
We have analysed the draft legislation and here are the main issues.
- It is good to see the broad statements of principle and commitments in introductory provisions such as the Parliamentary declaration (s3), the universal duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people (s4), and that the safety of children and young people is paramount (s6).
- The draft Bill recognises importance of children being informed and listened to in matters affecting them and making sure that their views are represented when decisions are being made. (s55, s54(1) and s75(3))
- The Aboriginal Placement Principle is retained (s75 (2)(a)) and there are other provisions regarding cultural maintenance and support, although we await the response of the Aboriginal community before reaching any final conclusions.
- The Charter of Rights is carried over into the new Bill (s11).
- A Child and Young Person’s Visitor Scheme (ss 104 – 107) is welcome although it is not clear why this is discretionary rather than being a mandatory direction to the Minister s105(1).
Not so good
- The proposed capacity for the Chief Executive to “give directions or guidance in relation to a matter to a State authority to which the matter is referred” s28(7) is a a concern. It would allow the Chief Executive to direct the Guardian in a way that undermines the independence of the Guardian’s office as guaranteed in other legislation.
- The loss of the child safe environment provisions (currently enacted in s8B of the Children’s Protection Act 1993) means that Governments and NGOs will lack a clear indication of their accountability and duty of care .
- Also lost are sections 26A and 26B of the Children’s Protection Act 1993 which means female genital mutilation will no longer be a matter warranting explicit attention as a form of child abuse.
- The Bill will mean that the Chief Executive of the Department for Child Protection takes over accountability for objectives of the Bill/Act from the Minister. There is no rationale for this change which will, if anything, confuse the clear line of responsibility for child protection that now flows unambiguously to the Minister.
You can read the detail in the full text of the Guardian’s response to the draft Bill which is available for download.
The Guardian’s response to the draft Children and Young People (Safety) Bill 2016 is available for download.
24 November, 2016
Themes from Nyland #13
The team from the Guardian’s office have analysed the 850 pages and 260 recommendations from The life they deserve: Child Protection Systems Royal Commission Report1. We have extracted some themes and priorities to allow us to critique the government’s response, judge the improvements over time and to shape our own work. Following is a description of the issues and a short list of things to watch for in the reform process. The first 12 in the series are available.2 We will post the rest over the next few weeks. 3
Meeting the needs of children in care in regional areas presents additional and different challenges to those faced in metropolitan Adelaide.
In many regional areas, the limited number of foster care placements is compounded by there being no, or very few, residential care facilities.
Children removed from the care of their families are sometimes placed many kilometres away, interrupting their education, their stability and their ability to maintain contact with their family and friends.
The use of unsuitable rotational (emergency) placements, she noted, was particularly prevalent in some regional locations.
Commissioner Nyland found that services, particularly psychological assistance, were not able to be accessed easily.
Specialist therapeutic services necessary to respond to children who have experienced abuse and neglect are also limited in most regions.
The quality of justice for children also suffers in regional areas. It is undermined by the poor quality of the conferencing technology used and the need for families and witnesses to travel long distances to attend trials held in Adelaide.
It is unacceptable that child protection proceedings have less access to court facilities than many summary criminal matters.
Commissioner Nyland recommended the use of properly staffed videoconferencing facilities for pre-trial hearings and that ‘care and protection trials should be held at the court location most convenient to the parties.’
She highlighted the success of examples of regional co-operation in the provision of services and that the ‘child and family assessment and referral networks’ she recommended elsewhere in her report would be instrumental in identifying, planning for and coordinating responses in regional centres.
The Commissioner acknowledged that working in human services and statutory roles in regional areas could be especially difficult and confronting and that recruiting and retaining suitable staff is a chronic problem. She advocated a suite of incentives, supports, professional development opportunities and rostering arrangements to assist in filling staff vacancies and improving staff continuity in regions.
The Commissioner noted that Aboriginal children and young people additionally ‘faced the combined challenges of remoteness and high need’.
As reform progresses we look forward to seeing:
- increased focussed on the recruiting of foster carers and the establishment of appropriate residential care facilities in regional areas
- the development of a specialist psychological service for children in regional areas.
- improvements to the videoconferencing facilities for hearings for families and children in regional areas
- attraction and retention strategies and improved opportunities for training and development for Department for Child Protection workers in regional areas
- the development of regional needs planning and cooperative models of delivery in regional areas
- consultation with each remote Aboriginal community about the implementation of the recommendations arising from the Nyland report.
Please join the discussion on child protection reform via the reply box below.
1 Unless otherwise noted all quotes are from The life they deserve: Child Protection Systems Royal Commission Report,
2 See also posts on Coordination and Collaboration, The voice of the child , Emergency care , Residential care Home-based care, Therapeutic care, Aboriginal children, Education , Stability and certainty in care, Responding to abused or neglected children, Children in care with disabilities and Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. ***
3 This is not intended to be a précis of Commissioner Nyland’s report which provides a very clear and readable summary. Because of the Guardian’s mandate, this analysis will tend to focus on issues for children in out-of-home-care.
1 November, 2016
One of the areas of interest for the Guardian’s Office in its 2014-15 monitoring was the extent to which residential care supported the connection to culture and community of its Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander residents.
Although there was interest and some enthusiasm shown by both workers and residents, examples of where this was done comprehensively were hard to find. There were few Aboriginal residential care workers and workers often lacked the confidence and the cultural competency to embark on that work.
Residential care workers observed that there had frequently been little background done on developing cultural connection prior to the resident arriving and it was not uncommon to have little information on a new resident’s cultural connections at the time they arrived. Some observed that they lacked the time to undertake the work without external support.
The Report identified four imperatives if residential care were to improve significantly in this area:
- Build the capacity and confidence of organisations that provide residential care to engage with and prioritise cultural connection.
- Require Families SA (now known as the Department for Child Protection) to elicit and record information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people’s family and cultural connections and to inform residential care staff prior to their placement.
- Build the understanding of residential care workers and residents of the importance of cultural connection and their capacity to facilitate it.
- Improve the availability of in-house resources and external support in order to give effect to cultural connection.
Please join the discussion via the reply box leaving a name and an email address in the spaces provided. We will remove them from the published post if you request in your reply.
18 October, 2016
Our Office’s experience talking with Aboriginal children and young people was confirmed in a consultation with young people earlier this year. They told us that the same messages and artwork that appeal to other young people may not connect with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people.
‘ hand drawn images – they are made by heart, computer generated images are made by nothing’
Aboriginal young person at the
Tandanya consultation in January 2016
Charter of Rights coordinator Nicole Pilkington said, ‘We wanted to create something that Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander young people, all Aboriginal people, would not only read but would be happy to have on their walls.
‘We were fortunate to connect with Ramindjeri/Ngarrindjeri artist Teresa Walker.
‘Teresa’s work has strong cultural influences and also has a modern vibrancy and energy that makes it stand out.
Teresa’s work will form the basis of a large poster that talks about four main rights that will also be available in smaller sizes. She will be working closely with designers Sue and Chris from SD Design who produced the new booklets and posters for the 2016 re-launch of the Charter of Rights.
The posters will be published in October and will be available to agencies that have endorsed the Charter of Rights via the Guardian’s materials ordering page.
This story was first published in the Guardian’s August 2016 Newsletter.
Download the August 2016 Guardian’s Newsletter in PDF now.
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